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The knowledge of intervention assignment. See Blind.

Masked Study Designs

Study designs comparing two or more interventions in which either the investigators, the subjects, or some combination thereof do not know the treatment group assignments of individual subjects. Sometimes called "blind" study designs. See also: Double-Masked Design and Single-Masked Design

Material Transfer Agreement (MTA)

A MTA is a contract that governs the transfer of tangible research materials between two organizations, when the recipient intends to use it for his or her own research purposes. The MTA defines the rights of the provider and the recipient with respect to the materials and any derivatives. Biological materials, such as reagentscell linesplasmids, and vectors, are the most frequently transferred materials, but MTAs may also be used for other types of materials, such as chemical compounds and even some types of software. Three types of MTAs are most common at academic institutions: transfer between academic or research institutions, transfer from academia to industry, and transfer from industry to academia. Each call for different terms and conditions.

Maximally Tolerated Dose

The highest dose of a biologically active agent given during a chronic study that will not reduce longevity from effects other than carcinogenicity.


Michigan Clinical Research Unit

Medical Device

  • A diagnostic or therapeutic article that does not achieve any of its principal intended purpose through chemical action within or on the body (that is, not a drug or biologic). Such devices include diagnostic test kits, crutches, electrodes, pacemakers, arterial grafts, intraocular lenses, and orthopedic pins or other orthopedic equipment. (OHRP)
  • A medical device is any instrument, apparatus, or other similar or related article, including component, part, or accessory, which is… intended for use in the diagnosis of disease or other conditions, or in the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease, in humans or other animals… The range of devices is broad and diverse, including bandages, thermometers, ECG electrodes, IUDs, cardiac pacemakers, and hemodialysis machines. For further information, see the following FDA guidance:

Medical School

University of Michigan Medical School


The patient-centric electronic health record (EHR) system used by more than 26,000 members of the Michigan Medicine community.

Michigan Billing Enrollment Calendar Tool (MBECT)

A tool to assist researchers with one point of data entry for building a clinical research budget and billing calendar and tracking your subject enrollment.

Michigan Clinical Research Unit (MCRU)

MCRU provides the clinical staff, resources, and infrastructure necessary to conduct human clinical research protocols at the UM. MCRU hosts investigators funded by federal, state, and local agencies as well as those funded by the private sector. MCRU also serves as an institutional resource for investigators to perform pilot studies that may result in further agency funding. Investigators whose research protocol is federally, departmentally, or philanthropically funded currently can access resources and services without fee. Industry-sponsored studies are billed differently but all research discounts apply.

Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR)

MICHR’s mission is to enable & enhance clinical & translational research. Their aim is to make UM a world leader in translating scientific discoveries into real health gains. MICHR educates funds, connects, & supports research teams across U-M and the communities we serve. MICHR is proud to be a part of a national consortium of 60 medical research institutions working together with a common vision, funded through Clinical & Translational Science Awards (CTSA).


The process by which a specification (built & delivered by Nimblify) is updated by CRAO to encompass the level of detail needed for successful subject management, account reconciliation and charge routing at U of M.


 Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research

MICHR IND/IDE Investigator Assistance Program (MIAP)

MIAP was established to provide comprehensive regulatory support, guidance, and education services to faculty investigators involved in US FDA regulated clinical research at UM. MIAP's primary focus is to offer regulatory assistance to sponsor-investigators of a new drug, biologic or medical device to ensure clinical research excellence and regulatory compliance, as set forth by the UM and the FDA. The MIAP program offers regulatory assistance to Investigators planning to utilize either a drug or biological product classified by the FDA as an IND per 21 CFR 312, or an investigational medical device subject to IDE regulations, per 21 CFR 812.

Mild Adverse Event

An event which does not pose any significant or permanent risk of harm to the subject. A mild adverse event is considered Grade Iusing CTC Common Toxicity Criteria. See also Severity.

Minimal Risk

  • Generally: “Minimal risk means that the probability and magnitude of harm or discomfort anticipated in the research are not greater in and of themselves than those ordinarily encountered in the daily life or during the performance of routine physical or psychological examinations or tests”  45 CFR 46.102(i)
  • Prisoners:  “Minimal risk is the probability and magnitude of physical or psychological harm that is normally encountered in the daily lives, or in the routine medical, dental, or psychological examination of healthy person"  45 CFR 46.303(d)

Minor Changes

Changes to research that in the judgment of the IRB do not affect assessment of the risks and benefits of the study by substantially altering any of the following: research aims or methodology, nature of subject participation, level of risk, proposed benefits, participant population, qualifications of the research team, or the facilities available to support the safe conduct of the research. A minor change does not increase risk more than minimally or add procedures in research categories other than those that qualify for expedited initial review.

Moderate Adverse Event

An event which causes discomfort and perhaps requires treatment, but does not pose any significant or permanent risk or harm to the subject or require in-patient hospitalization. An event that is Grade II by CTC Common Toxicity Criteria.

Modifications Required

An IRB action that specifies conditions under which research can be approved, pending the completion of minor, non-substantive (i.e., not directly relevant to the determinations required for approval by the IRB) clarifications or modifications to the protocol and/or informed consent process/document. Review of the investigator’s response(s) may be performed by expedited review.

Multi-site Trial

A single study that involves more than one research center.

Multicenter Research Project

A research project conducted according to a single protocol but at more than one site, and, therefore, carried out by more than one set of investigators.