Procedures for Non-Human Primate Quarantine and Conditioning

Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine
Apr 21, 2023 12:00 am

To define the standard operating procedure for quarantine and conditioning of non-human primates (NHPs) at the University of Michigan for use in research.

  • Responsibility

    1. ULAM Husbandry and Veterinary Personnel: Responsible for all quarantine procedures of newly arrived NHP (unless previous arrangements have been made with the laboratory). This includes provision of all husbandry care and medical procedures (e.g., physical examinations and technical and diagnostic procedures including tuberculin testing).
    2. ULAM Business Office: Responsible to ensure that all requests for non-human primate acquisitions be reviewed and approved by the ULAM veterinary and husbandry personnel prior to placing the order.
    3. Investigative Personnel: Must be directly involved with the ULAM veterinary and husbandry personnel during the entire quarantine period, as consistent communication is essential during this time. This includes;
      1. Notifying ULAM veterinary and husbandry personnel...
        1. prior to any animal orders.
        2. about coordinating shipments.
        3. of subsequent evaluations.
      2. Notifying ULAM veterinary personnel...
        1. of any apparent health-related issues both physical and psychological.
        2. when accepting any additional responsibilities stated in this document.
  • Glossary Definitions

  • Procedures

    1. Introduction

    1. All non-human primates (NHPs) must be placed in quarantine upon their arrival at the University of Michigan. This quarantine has several purposes:
      1. to protect the health of those NHPs already in research colonies at the University
      2. to protect the health of University employees from unnecessary exposure to zoonotic agents that newly received NHPs may harbor
      3. to allow ULAM veterinary personnel adequate time to assess the general health of the new arrivals
      4. to provide the NHPs time to acclimate to their new environment
    2. The standard length of quarantine for NHPs requires two consecutive negative TB tests. Quarantine period may be extended per veterinary discretion.
    3. Specific aspects of the quarantine procedure will vary with the species of NHP. This protocol covers Old World monkeys (OWM) and New World monkeys (NWM). Apes (such as gibbons and chimpanzees), which to date have never been housed at the University of Michigan, will not be discussed in this document.

    2. Required Procedures Prior to Ordering a Non-human Primate

    1. Before an animal order is finalized with a vendor or institution, it is essential that information be communicated between:
      1. The laboratory
      2. ULAM business office
      3. ULAM husbandry personnel
      4. ULAM veterinary personnel
      5. Through this communication, husbandry personnel can ensure that appropriate housing space and equipment will be available for use; veterinary personnel will have the opportunity to request and review animal records and approve an animal's transfer to the University.
    2. Laboratories utilizing the ULAM Business Office
      1. Please follow instructions on eRAM

    3. Occupational Health and Safety

    1. Facility access
      1. Access to NHP quarantine facilities is strictly limited to authorized ULAM or laboratory personnel compliant with the Environment, Health, and Safety (EHS) animal handler health screening and monitoring programs, and ULAM and IACUC 's NHP-specific training. Approved visitors (e.g. IACUC members, inspectors, site visitors etc.) must be escorted by animal program personnel and must be compliant with OHS requirements to be in the presence of NHPs.
    2. Personal protective equipment (PPE)
      1. Personal Protective Equipment/Clothing to be worn in all NHP rooms is listed in Appendix E of the document, Animal Handler Occupational Health and Safety Program. These Guidelines MUST be followed unless previously approved by both EHS and the Faculty Veterinarian with clinical oversight for the area.
      2. Refer to the EHS Animal Handler PPE Chart for information on personal clothing and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) required to be worn in NHP rooms or if alternative PPE is needed.
      3. Primate quarantine rooms should be entered after all other primate rooms because of the unknown status of quarantined animals.
      4. It is recommended that University-dedicated scrubs be worn in NHP quarantine room(s). Discard PPE and change into clean scrubs or personal clothing immediately upon exiting a quarantine room.
      5. Every attempt should be made to avoid entering an NHP non-quarantine room after entering an NHP quarantine room during the same workday.
      6. If an emergency occurs which requires personnel who have been in a non-human quarantine room to enter another non-human primate room, they must:
        1. Not wear the same clothing worn in quarantine.
        2. Wear proper room-dedicated PPE.

    4. Quarantine Period

    1. The standard quarantine period requires two consecutive negative TB tests at a minimum of two weeks apart.
    2. Quarantine periods can be prolonged at the discretion of the clinical faculty veterinarian based on the following factors: source of acquisition concerns, prior health screening results, positive test results during quarantine, and evidence of clinical disease.
      1. SPF status (PCR, TB skin test, or serologically negative) from the following pathogens:
        1. Bacterial: Mycobacterium tuberculosis
        2. Viral: Simian immunodeficiency virus, simian type D retrovirus, herpes B virus, and simian T-lymphotropic virus

    5. Post-Arrival Health Examinations, Diagnostics & Parasite Control

    1. All NHPs should be visually inspected by the responsible veterinary technician at the time of arrival. A permanent clinical record should be made at this time. All health records from the vendor should be placed in this record.
    2. Any obvious signs of illness or trauma should be immediately reported to the clinical veterinarian for the housing area.
    3. All NHPs should have a 24-hour acclimation period with no physical manipulation.
      1. Exceptions to this will be made for animals with collars or other items that could impact animal health needing removal under sedation.
    4. Within seven business days after arrival, ALL NHPs must be sedated, weighed, given an intradermal TB test (see Procedures section 6 below) and receive a full physical examination. Animals without permanent identification will be permanently identified as directed by the clinical faculty veterinarian (unless scheduled to be used acutely in a terminal procedure).
      1. The clinical veterinary resident will perform the physical examination (see Procedures for Semi-Annual Exams for Non-Human Primates). Special note should be taken of age, weight and body condition in case an animal needs adjusted rations during the quarantine period.
      2. At each subsequent sedation for a routine quarantine procedure or clinical issue a complete physical exam should be performed including a body weight check. (See Procedures for Semi-Annual Exams for Non-Human Primates).
    5. A serum chemistry panel and complete blood count will be performed at the time of the second TB test. Blood will be collected and submitted to ULAM Pathology Core.
    6. De-worming and Fecal Checks
      1. OW and NW Monkeys 
        1. Fecal samples will be collected during the initial sedated physical exam and submitted to ULAM Pathology Core for analysis.
        2. All clinically normal OWM that are not currently on an anthelminthic treatment will receive a single subcutaneous dose of ivermectin (200 mcg/kg body weight) immediately following their initial sedated physical examination.
        3. Another fecal sample will be collected at time of second sedated exam and submitted to ULAM Pathology Core for a subsequent endoparasite exam.
      2. Both OWM and NWM positive for pathogenic internal parasitism will be treated with an appropriate anthelminthic as per the clinical veterinarian.

    Table of Quarantine Veterinary Procedures:

    First Sedated Quarantine Exam (Day 2-7 post-arrival) Second Sedated Quarantine Exam (Day 16 – 21 post-arrival)
    PE PE
    TB skin test TB skin test
    CBC/Chemistry Fecal +/- anti-parasitic treatment
    Fecal Any recheck bloodwork or additional diagnostics based on first exam
    Ivermectin administered  
    Permanent ID - Tattoos if present should be clearly visible  


    6. Tuberculin Testing in Quarantine

    1. All tuberculin tests and subsequent grading will be performed by ULAM veterinary personnel.
    2. During the quarantine period, all NHPs must have 2 consecutive tuberculin tests at two-week intervals.
      1. Release from quarantine will be dependent on 2 consecutive negative tuberculin tests.
    3. Refer to Tuberculin Testing of Non-Human Primates for a more detailed description of the tuberculin testing procedure.

    7. Daily Clinical Observation

    1. ALL NHPs in quarantine should be observed twice daily by members of the ULAM animal husbandry personnel for signs of local and/or systemic illness such as not eating or drinking, bleeding or lacerations, diarrhea, and coughing.
    2. Any abnormality or illness must be reported to the veterinary technician by submitting an Animal Treatment Report (ATR). Any profound illness should be treated as an emergency and the veterinary personnel contacted immediately for assistance.

    8. Feeding & Watering

    1. Husbandry personnel will establish a food chart for each animal upon its arrival and for the duration of the animal's quarantine period. The veterinary technician will indicate on a yellow acetate the amount of biscuits to be fed.
    2. The room technician should report any animals that do not eat at least 2/3 of their ration.
    3. To help prevent gastric dilatation and bloat, newly received OWM > 3.0 kg. will be fed only 1/4 of the daily calculated ration on the first day while (OWM < 3.0 kg should be started at ½ of the daily ration). The ration should be increased gradually over 4-7 days to the full calculated ration. Following this time, all animals should be fed as detailed in the "Feeding and Watering" section of the Non-Human Primate Husbandry SOP.
    4. The amount of food constituting a NHP's full ration may be modified by the ULAM veterinary personnel if the NHP is judged to be over- or under-weight.

    9. Sanitation

    1. Cage and room sanitation practices are identical to those for non-quarantine NHP housing rooms, as per ULAM protocol, with one exception. The floor of the quarantine room should be swept and then disinfected (wet mopped) with a dilute bleach solution (or other acceptable disinfectant) at least twice weekly.
    2. Equipment must be washed and disinfected prior to movement between rooms.

    10. Environmental Enrichment

    1. ALL NHPs at the University of Michigan must receive appropriate environmental enrichment as per federal standards and guidelines. The program which coordinates this activity at U-M is the Primate Environmental Enrichment Plan (PEEP); its structure and operation is described in Environmental Enrichment for Non-Human Primates.
    2. Upon the arrival of NHPs into quarantine, the veterinary technicians should inform the PEEP Coordinator so that the proper enrichment forms can be completed. The PEEP program should be initiated during quarantine. NHPs from the same source/shipment can be paired or grouped housed at the discretion of the faculty veterinarian.
    3. All manipulanda (e.g. puzzle feeders, foraging boards, toys) must be thoroughly disinfected before transfer from one NHP to another.

    11. Cost Reimbursement

    1. All diagnostic tests and veterinary technician time are NOT covered by standard per-diem rates and will be recharged to the Principal Investigator.
Species: Primates

Questions or concerns about the content of this document should be directed to the Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine (ULAM) at (734) 764-0277 or